Evidence of human activity in the subcontinent begins about 75,000 years ago. The Indus Civilization flourished in the North West part of the subcontinent during the period of 3300 to 1300 BCE. It is now present in Pakistan; it was the first one and biggest civilization in South Asia. Most parts of subcontinent was conquered in the 3rd and 4th centuries by Maurya Empire. Many Hindu and Buddha civilizations were established in the subcontinent, but the very first Muslim Empire was settled down by Mohammad Bin Qasim in 8th century CE. He was an Arab general who conquered Multan & Sindh. He put several invasions in Central Asia between 10th to 15th centuries CE, leading to Muslim Empires.
After the conquest of Persia, Islamic Caliphate started to spread what is now in Pakistan about 720 CE. It was a rich region so Muslim rulers want to explore it. Shortest Muslim empire was made in North West part of subcontinent. After that in 12th& 13th centuries Afghans and Turks conquered the part north India, and laid the foundation of Delhi Sultanate. They conquer large area of northern India.Khilji Dynasty also conquers central India but some parts. “Delhi Sultanate” the only indo-Islamic empire who have one of few female rulers, Razia Sultana. (1236-1240).the sultan family was defeated in Dec 17, 1398 by Turco Mongol. Timur attacked sultan and won the battle. According to his order whole city was sacked except for sayyids, scholars and other Muslims.
Mughal rule came from central Asia and Mughal’s introduce Asian art and architecture in this region. In 1526 Babur, Timur’s descendant and Genghis Khan from Uzbekistan were swept across Khyber Pass to established Mughal Empire. But his son Hamayun was defeated by Sher Shah Suri in 1540, and forced to retreat to Kabul. After the death of Sher Shah Suri his son and Hindu king established Hindu rule till 1556. Akbar’s forces killed Hemu and defeat his forces on 6 Nov, 1556 in 2nd battle of Panipat. Mughal Dynasty was stronger by 1600 but went slow after 1707 and finally defeated by Indian Rebellion of 1857. Later Emperors of Mughal Empire like Akbar and Aurangzeb tried to make Muslim Dominance but came to end and decline in 1739.
Later Nader Shah emperor of Iran defeated Mughal army and sacked Delhi, captured treasures. Mughals were the richest dynasty ever existed. They have dominant political forces and army.
Other Muslims Emperor and rulers were Hyder Ali, Tipu Sultan, Awadh and man states of Hyderabad. Awsdhwstablished in 1722 AD and Faizabad was its capital and Sadat Ali Khan was first Nawab. Many rulers of Awadh had a great effect on history of subcontinent. They followed Ganga Jamuni culture.Haider Ali was born in 1720 and died in 1782; he was the ruler of Kingdom of Mysore. His son Tipu Sultan, successor of his empire was also a great Muslim leader and ruler. Reign of Tipu Sultan was (1750- 1799 AD). He was a brave man and people called him as Tiger of Mysore.
After that British capture the subcontinent and after a long struggle two countries came into being, present day Pakistan and India.
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